Gartnait, Earl of Mar,

(before 1297 - )
     Gartnait, Earl of Mar, married Christina Bruce Countess of Mar, daughter of Robert de Bruce Earl of Carrick, 6th Lord of Annandale and Marjorie Carrick Countess of Carrick, circa 1295? In Scotland. Lady Christian, married, first, to Gratney/Gaitnait, earl of Mar; secondly to Sir Christopher Seton of Seton, who was put to death by the English in 1306; and thirdly, to Sir Andrew Moray of Bothwell. Gartnait, Earl of Mar, was born before 1297. Gartnait of Mar - Gartnait mac Domhnaill (Gartnait, Donald's son) - was the eighth known Mormaer of Mar, ruling from somewhere around 1301, perhaps as early as 1297, until his death in 1305. He was a son of Domhnall I of Mar, brother of Isabella of Mar and brother-in-law of Robert I of Scotland.
We last hear of his father alive in 1297, and we hear of his son Gartnait as Mormaer perhaps in 1302, and definitely by 1305. Gartnait himself is known to have collaborated with Edward in some form during the crackdown of 1297, but this does not necessarily mean any break with his father or with Robert I, whom his father supported.
In 1302, a document containing terms of reconciliation between Edward I of England and Robert stipulates that Robert should act as warden of Gartnait,1 implying that Gartnait's father Domhnall had just died. However, he was married to Robert's sister Christina Bruce, perhaps in 1295
. He was the son of Donald, 6/10th Earl of Mar.

Child of Gartnait, Earl of Mar, and Christina Bruce Countess of Mar

Gloyw Wallt Hir

Child of Gloyw Wallt Hir

Godric,,

(circa 1112 - )
     Godric, was born circa 1112. He was the son of Ketelbern.

Child of Godric,,

Gospatric,,

(say 1100 - after 1154)
     Gospatric, was born say 1100 in Scotland?. Gospatric the second son, is said to have been a bastard, though this is doubtful. He received from his brother Alan, the lands of Bolton, Bassenthwaite, and others in Derwentwater. He is styled Gospatric, son of Waldeve, when he appears as a witness in two charters by King David I about 1130, and he and his brother are witnesses on 16 August 1139. Gospatric survived till after 1154, as he is a witness to a charter by King Malcolm IV between that year and 1158, to the monks of Dunfermline. About the same date the King addressed a letter to him and to the Abbot of Dunfermline, ferryers of the seaports, i.e. lords of the ferries, directing them to pass Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, and his men, free of charge. This writ suggests that he was then the owner of Dundas, commanding the south side of the Queen's ferry. It is therefore probable he was the father of Waldeve, son of Gospatric, who held the lands in Scotland of Inverkeithing and Dalmeny, and who granted to the monks of Jedburgh the church of Bassenthwaite in Cumberland. He granted the lands of Dundas to Helias Fitz Huctred, probably a kinsman, in a charter, dated certainly before 1200, but the witnesses of which suggest a date about 1180 or a little earlier. He was dead before 19-00, and had issue apparently only two daughters, Christiana and Galiena. Christiana married Duncan Lascelles, and had right not only to Bassenthwaite and Bolton, but had heritage in Scotland. Galiena married Philip Moubray, and they confirmed or added to the grant made by Waldeve, son of Gospatric, of the church of Inverkeithing to the Abbey of Dunfermline. His grandson, Roger Moubray, also confirmed, after 1233, a grant by his grandfather Waldeve, of the church of Dalmeny, to the monks of Jedburgh. This Waldeve, son of Gospatric, is not to be confounded with his namesake Waldeve the Earl, son of Gospatric the Earl, who died in 1182, and whom he apparently survived. He was the son of Waldeve, and Sigrid or Sigarith.
     Gospatric died after 1154.

Gospatrick Earl of Northumbria

(between 1040 and 1048 - circa 1075)
     Gospatrick Earl of Northumbria was also known as Cospatrick in records. He was born between 1040 and 1048 in England. Quo mortuo, Cospatricus, filius Maldredi filii Crinani, Willelmum regum adiens, multaemptum pecunia adeptus est comitatum Northymbrensium. Nam ex materno sanguine attinebat ad eum honor illius comitatus. Erat enim ex matre Algitha, filia Uchtredi comitis, quam habuit ex Algiva filia Agelredi Regis. Hanc Algitham pater dedit in conjugium Maldredo filio Crinani. Tenuit autem comitatum, donec rex causis ex supradictis ei auferret. Fugiens ergo ad Malcolmum non multo post Flandriam navigio petit. Cui post aliquantum tempus Scotiam reverso, donavit ei rex supradictus Dunbar cum adjacentibus terris in Lodoneio, ut ex his, donec lætiora redirent tempora, se suosque procuraret. Iste Cospatricus est pater Dolfini, Walthevi, et Cospatrici. Post Cospatricum datus est comitatus Walthevo, Siwardi comitis filio.
His parentage is disputed - See Wikikpedia. He was the son of Maldred or Malcolm, King of Cumbria and Algitha or Ealdgith.
Gospatrick Earl of Northumbria married an unknown person . The name of the Earl's wife is unknown, and her parentage has not been discovered, though she had a brother, Edmund or Eadmund, to whose lands her son Gospatric obtained a right from King Henry I.
Gospatric of Northumberland, Lord of Bamburg married Aethelreda, had three sons: Dolphin; Waelthof of Crowland, Abbot of Crowland; Gospatric de Dunbar, Earl of Dunbar.
Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria (1067-1068,1070-1072) and first Earl of Dunbar. With other nobles of the north of England fled to Scotland after the conquest in 1066 by William of Normandy. Malcolm Canmore bestowed on Cospatrick the manor of Dunbar and many fair lands in the Merse and Lothian. His second son Cospatrick, witnessed the foundation charter of the abbey of Holyrood house, by David I in 1128. He had soon afterwards the rank of an Earl, and died in 1139 leaving a son. [The Scottish nation, p.73]
]Burke's Extinct Peerage states that the monks of Durham celebrated 15 Dec 1069, the death of this Cospatricius, Earl and Monk; and in 1821, a stone coffin inscribed on its lid + Cospatricius, Comes" was found in the monks' burial ground at Durham.
Paul in The Scots peerage states: The first of the family who possessed Dunbar, from which his descendants took their surname, was Gospatric ('Gwas Patric, servant of Patric'), who probably was named after his mother's half-brother, the son of the Earl of Northumberland by another wife. He was allied to noble lineage on both sides of the house, uniting the Celtic descent of his father with the royal stock of Wessex, from which his mother came. He was born probably about 1040, and is said to have accompanied Earl Tosti, Harold's brother, to Rome, in 1061, where he tried to save the Earl's life, though the story may be told of the elder Gospatric, his uncle.' Towards the end of the year 1067 he was made Earl of Northumberland by King William the Conqueror. He had a certain though not direct claim to the dignity through his mother, but he paid a large sum of money for the honour. In the following year, however, he took part in the conspiracy against the Conqueror on behalf of Edgar the Etheling, which at first rose to formidable proportions in the north, but, by the treachery of Edwin and Morker, it came to naught. Gospatric fled to Scotland with the Etheling, his mother and sisters and others, and appears to have been, temporarily at least, deprived of the earldom, to which Robert Comyn was appointed. But in 1069 he was again at the head of the men of Northumbria, assisting at an invasion of the Danes, with whom Edgar the Etheling was in league. King William, however, suppressed the rebellion with terrible severity,' and Gospatric made his peace with William by proxy,' and remained faithful and in the King's favour for a time.
Stories are also told of his robbing the church of Durham and ravaging Cumberland,' though a recently discovered document, which is of the utmost importance for the early history of that shire, reveals the fact that Gospatric himself was a large landowner there, holding, not improbably by inheritance from his father Maldred, the district of Allerdale. This renders his invasion of Cumberland the more remarkable, but Allerdale may have been spared. It has been asserted, with full belief hitherto, that his son Waldeve was the first holder of Allerdale. But the writ in question shows that Gospatric was exercising full rights there before the time of King Henry I, who no doubt confirmed Waldeve's rights.'
King William used the influence Gospatric had among the Northumbrians to introduce a foreign bishop, Walcher, to the see of Durham, but a year later, or in 1072, perhaps because he found himself strong enough to do so, owing to the submission of King Malcolm III, King William deprived Gospatric of his earldom. The pretexts for deprivation were his alliance with the Danes and his alleged complicity in the death of Robert Comyn, but these had been condoned, and the real crime was probably the personal hold he had on the affections of the people, which, added to his great possessions, made him in William's eyes a dangerous subject at the extremity of the kingdom. The Earl fled to the Court of his cousin, the King of Scots, and thence he sailed to Flanders. On his return King Malcolm gave to him Dunbar, with adjoining lands in Lothian, that from these, until happier times should return, he might support himself and his family.'
According to the chronicler from whom we learn so much about this Earl, he did not long survive his residence in Scotland, and died at Ubbanford, which is Norham, and was buried in the porch of the church there. The chronicler is entitled to much respect, as he certainly compiled his narrative at no great distance from the event, and was himself probably a native of the district. But his narrative contradicts a long-standing tradition that this Earl was he who became a monk at Durham, and was buried there, his name being commemorated in their obituaries as 'comes et monachus,' while a tombstone, believed to be his, bearing, the inscription 'Gospatricus comes,' was discovered in the monks' burial-ground there, in 1821, and is now preserved in the crypt of the cathedral at Durham.' Yet the circumstantial account of his death and burial at Norham makes the tradition doubtful, and there is no certain evidence to clear up the point. Gospatrick was created Earl of Northumberland by William the Conqueror after his payment of a heavy fine or what would now be thought of as an entrance fee (though his hereditary claim through his maternal grandfather also played a part). He was later (Oct-Nov 1072) deprived of the earldom on a charge of having taken part in a massacre at Durham. He fled to Scotland where his cousin Malcolm III granted him the mormaorship of Dunbar between 1068 and 1069.
     Gospatrick died circa 1075 in Ubbanford (Norham), Northumberland, England. Roger of Hoveden's chronicle:
Not long after this, being reduced to extreme infirmity, he sent for Aldwin and Turgot, the monks, who at this time were living at Meilros, in poverty and contrite in spirit for the sake of Christ, and ended his life with a full confession of his sins, and great lamentations and penitence, at Ubbanford, which is also called Northam, and was buried in the porch of the church there.

Children of Gospatrick Earl of Northumbria

Gruffudd

Child of Gruffudd

Gruffyd,, Prince of Gwynedd

     Gruffyd, Prince of Gwynedd was the son of Llewelyn, King of Gwynedd and Guerta, of Deheubarth.

Child of Gruffyd,, Prince of Gwynedd

Guerta, of Deheubarth,

     Guerta, of Deheubarth, married Llewelyn, King of Gwynedd.

Child of Guerta, of Deheubarth, and Llewelyn,, King of Gwynedd

Gunnild,,

     Gunnild, was the daughter of Waldeve, and Sigrid or Sigarith.
Gunnild, married Uchtred of Galloway, son of Fergus, Lord of Galloway. Gunnild, who was married to Uchtred, son of Fergus, Lord of Galloway, with issue.

Gunnilda,,

(before 1075 - )
     Gunnilda, was also known as Gurwelda in records. Gunnilda, was also known as Gimilda in records. Gunnilda, was also known as Gravelda in records.
Gunnilda, married Orm Fitz Ketel. Gunnilda, was born before 1075 in England?. MichaelAnne Guido wrote: Gravilda was born before 1075 as her father Gospatric earl of Northumberland was dead in 1074. Symeon of Durham (Symeonis Dunelmensis Opera et Collectanea, Vol. II, Surtees Society Publication, Andrews & Co., Durham, 1868, pp. 199) records that just before his death Gospatric was visited by two monks from Jarrow abbey Aldwin and Turgot. Gospatric confessed his sins and died and was buried in the porch of the church at Melrose. Symeon dates this to 1074 in Vol. I, pp. 111 where he states that this trip took place from Jarrow to Melrose. The confession was taken at Ubbanford (Norham). So the latest birth date for Gravilda was 1075.
Gospatric son of Orm first comes into documented records in 1150 as he witnessed a charter of Henry (son of David I, king of Scotland) with Bishop Athewold to Holm Cultram Abbey. Gospatric would have been at least 14 when he witnessed this charter. Gospatric died ca. 1179. In 1174 he granted a charter to Holm Cultram with the consent of his son Thomas [his heir] and another son Alan which was witnessed at Camberton before Robert de Vallibus who was justice itinerant in 1174. These dates seem to make it much more likely that Gospatric was born ca. 1120-1125 which would eliminate Gravilda from being his mother.
The next documented record of Thomas son of Gospatric occurs in 1185 when he made an agreement with Adam de Kerkebi (Pipe rolls 31 Henry I). He died between November 13, 1200 (Charter Rolls, 2 John, m. 27 dorso; Pipe Roll, 2 John) and 1201(Rot. de Oblations, pp. 157, 179, 194; Westmoreland Pipe Roll, 3 John).
Based on the above data Thomas son of Gospatric would appear to have been born ca. 1155-1160 making the logical birth date ca. 1120-1125 for Gospatric.
In the eleventh century for a woman to be married and give birth to her first child at 45-50 is very improbable
. She was the daughter of Gospatrick Earl of Northumbria.

Child of Gunnilda,, and Orm Fitz Ketel

Hectreda or Octreda

      Hectreda or Octreda, married, first, to Randulf de Lindesay, and secondly, to William de Esseville or de Esseby.
. Hectreda or Octreda was the daughter of Waldeve, and Sigrid or Sigarith.

Prince Henry,, (of Scotland). 3rd Earl of Huntingdon

(1114 - 12 July 1152)
     Prince Henry, (of Scotland). 3rd Earl of Huntingdon was born in 1114. He was the son of David, I, King of Scotland 1124-53 and Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon.
He was a prince of Scotland, heir to the Kingdom of Alba. He was also the 3rd Earl of Northumberland and the 3rd Earl of the Honour of Huntingdon and Northampton.
Prince Henry, (of Scotland). 3rd Earl of Huntingdon married Ada de Warenne in 1139.
     Henry died on 12 July 1152 in Newcastle or Roxburgh.

Children of Prince Henry,, (of Scotland). 3rd Earl of Huntingdon and Ada de Warenne

Child of Prince Henry,, (of Scotland). 3rd Earl of Huntingdon

Hugh, Earl of Ross,

( - 19 July 1333)
     Hugh, Earl of Ross, was also known as Aodh in records. He was the son of William, Earl of Ross, and Euphemia Barclay? Countess of Ross.
Hugh, Earl of Ross, married Maud or Matilda Bruce Countess of Ross, daughter of Robert de Bruce Earl of Carrick, 6th Lord of Annandale and Marjorie Carrick Countess of Carrick, in 1309 or 1323 in Scotland. Lady Matilda, married to Hugh, earl of Ross. With Maud, Aodh had six children. Four of them were daughters, including Euphemia de Ross. All received prestigious marriage partners (including to the Counts of Buchan and Moray, to Mormaer Maol Íosa IV, Earl of Strathearn and the future king Robert II.
He had a brother John who married Margaret, niece of John Comyn, Earl of Buchan, and died without issue.
Aodh of Ross, commonly known as Earl Hugh of Ross, was the third successor of Ferchar mac in tSagairt as Mormaer of Ross (1323-1333).
He was also Chief of Clan Ross.
Aodh was a favorite of King Robert I of Scotland, who endowed him with many lands. Aodh even married Robert's sister, Maud. Aodh's young brother, Iain, was given marriage to the Margaret Comyn, heiress of Buchan (although he died childless)
.
     Hugh died on 19 July 1333 in Halidon Hill, between Berwick & Duns, Northumberland, England. He was killed along many other Scottish nobles at the Battle of Halidon Hill and was succeeded by his son and successor, Uilleam.

Child of Hugh, Earl of Ross, and Maud or Matilda Bruce Countess of Ross

Children of Hugh, Earl of Ross, and Margaret Graham Countess of Ross

Hugh, Lord Lovat,

     Hugh, Lord Lovat, was the son of Simon, Lord Lovat, and Catherine MacKenzie.

Hywel ap Rhys,, King of Glywysing

( - 886)
     Hywel ap Rhys, King of Glywysing was the son of Rhys ab Arthfael (?).
     Hywel died in 886 in Wales. After 880..

Child of Hywel ap Rhys,, King of Glywysing

Isabel, of Huntingdon,

(between 1199 and 1206 - before 20 March 1251/52)
     Isabel, of Huntingdon, was born between 1199 and 1206 in England. She was the second daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon & niece of King Malcolm IV & William I of Scotland. She was the daughter of David, of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon (8) and Maud/Matilda, of Chester.
Isabel, of Huntingdon, married Robert de Brus 4th Lord of Annandale, son of William de Brus and Christina FitzAlan (Bruce), circa 1219.
She held the manors of Writtle & Hatfield Broad Oak in Essex. She was the second daughter, and coheiress of her brother, John, Earl of Chester. She had the manors of Hatfield Regis and Writtle, Essex as her share of the Chester inheritance (or in lieu thereof), 1238
Acc. to Sanders, held ' for the service of 1 knight's fee in exchange for her share of the Chester estates', p. 102[2]]
She also held to have received possession of Great Baddow, Essex, 1243 (Farrer, HKF II: 47)[15]
Her manors of Writtle and Hatfield (Broad Oak), Essex and the 1/2 hundred pertaining to Hatfield, were taken into the King's hand before 20 Mar 1251/52, and her son did homage therefor in Apr. or May. These manors, &c., had been granted to her, 16 Oct. 1241, in exchange for her share of the inheritance of John, Earl of Chester, in that Earldom.
     Isabel died before 20 March 1251/52 in England. She was buried in Saltre Abbey (Sawtrey), near Stilton, Huntingdonshire.

Child of Isabel, of Huntingdon, and Robert de Brus 4th Lord of Annandale

Isabella, Countess of Fife,

     Isabella, Countess of Fife, married Walter Stewart, son of Robert, II Stewart, King of Scotland and Elizabeth Mure. He was her fourth husband.

Ithel ap Morgan,, King of Glywysing

     Ithel ap Morgan, King of Glywysing was the son of Morgan ab Athrwys, King of Glywysing and unknown ferch Thedeu.
     Ithel died in Wales.

Child of Ithel ap Morgan,, King of Glywysing

Ithel Gam

     Ithel Gam married Tibod ferch Rhirid.

Child of Ithel Gam

James, II, King of Scotland

(16 October 1430 - 3 August 1460)
     James, II, King of Scotland was born on 16 October 1430 in Scotland. Possibly born in 1431?. He was the son of James, I Stewart, King of Scotland and Queen Joan or Jane Beaufort.
King of Scotland 1437-1460. James II (known as Fiery Face because of a large birthmark) was only six years old when he was crowned in Holyrood Abbey. This ended a tradition that all kings since Kenneth MacAlpin were crowned at Scone. During his minority, he was brought up in Edinburgh Castle. He reinstated Edinburgh as the capital of Scotland and it has not been challenged since. Scotland during his minority was ruled by two rivals, Chrichton and Livingstone. The 5th Earl of Douglas was appointed Lieutenant General of the kingdom. James was a pawn and a prisoner in the hands of the competing Scots lords, all of whom wished to rule through him. After two years Lord Chancellor Crichton refused to let anyone see him. Queen Joan made plans to move him. She took her leave from the castle, tearfully requesting Crichton to look after the boy. Unknown to Crichton she had packed James into a chest and smuggled him out of the castle. He was taken to Stirling to Lord Livingstone. Before long Livingstone used James in he same manner. So Queen Joan stole James back and went back to Crichton. Livingstone followed with his forces and civil war became imminent. The two sides were reconciled by the bishops who encouraged them both to make war against the Douglases. Lt. Governor Earl of Douglas had died leaving two sons. They were believed to be enemies to the throne. Crichton (the keeper of Edinburgh castle) and Livingstone (the keeper of Stirling Castle) murdered the 6th Earl of Douglas (a great-grandson of Robert III) and his brother at the Great Hall of Edinburgh where they had been invited to banquet. James was charmed by them but at the feast they were murdered in the presence of James II and two younger brothers. The head of a black bull was carried to the table. Under Scottish custom, this presaged death of the principal guest. James begged for the lives of the two young men to be spared but they were beheaded. This was called the Black Dinner of 1440. They had feared a Douglas coup. Some years later when James came of age, he decided to reestablish control over the nobles as Scotland had again become racked by lawlessness, plague and famine since James I's death. He wanted to make an example of troublemakers. He at once executed two of the Livingstone leaders. James himself in a fit of rage stabbed William, the 8th Earl of Douglas, one of the most powerful nobles in the land when the Earl would not denounce the 4th Earl of Crawford (the Tiger Earl) and the Earl of Ross (4th Lord of the Isles). He defeated the Douglases at Arkinholm. Two of the Douglas brothers were slain and Douglas fled to England. The great house of Black Douglas had fallen and this was a turning point in the fortunes of the Scottish Crown. James did bring order to his kingdom and was able to govern in peace.
James married Mary of Gelders, a kinswoman. He acquired some of the guns the Low Countries were famous for, possibly the Mons Meg. An act of 1456 authorized the King to request certain great barons each to provide a cart of war carrying two double-barreled guns and to train gunners. He got some artillery with his bride, Mary, whose dower house, Ravenscraig, was the first castle in Scotland with a gun platform.
Although he was always busy with his wars, his reign was marked by some important social legislation. An act of 1450 guaranteed the position of a tenant whose land passed to another lord. James II was killed at the siege of Roxburgh Castle when a cannon he was supervising exploded. He was trying to retrieve Roxburgh and Berwick Castles from the English and had raised an army for that purpose. Cannons were introduced in battle for the first time and he was proud of them and was standing too close when one exploded.
James, II, King of Scotland married Mary of Gueldres Queen of Scotland, daughter of Arnold d'Egmond Duke of Gueldres and Catherine, of Cleves,, on 3 July 1449 in Holyrood, Edinburgh, Scotland.
     James died on 3 August 1460 in the seige, Roxburgh Castle, Scotland, aged 29. When too near an exploding cannon. He was buried in Holyrood, Edinburgh.

Children of James, II, King of Scotland and Mary of Gueldres Queen of Scotland

James, III, King of Scotland

(10 July 1451 - 18 June 1488)
     James, III, King of Scotland was born on 10 July 1451 in Scotland. He was the son of James, II, King of Scotland and Mary of Gueldres Queen of Scotland. James, III, King of Scotland ruled Scotland between 1460 and 1488. James III was a child of 9 years when he came to the throne. He was crowned at Kelso Abbey. His mother, Marie of Gueldres, after his father's death, ruled as Regent until her death. Bishop Kennedy was Guardian of Scotland. He apparently managed the business of governing much better than James did when he reached his majority. The government of the time dealt with the outside threat of England by signing a truce with Edward IV.
When Marie died, the Boyd family, a powerful family in Scotland, became advisors to James III and took control of his person. Thomas, the son of Lord Boyd, was married to the King's sister, Mary, and was instrumental in arranging the King's marriage. James married Margaret of Denmark in 1469, whose father was the King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Part of her dowry consisted of Orkney and Shetland. They were given as security for part payment of her dowry since her father was impoverished. Her dowry was never forthcoming and, therefore, Orkney and Shetland became a permanent part of Scotland. When Thomas returned with James' new bride, he was in danger of being arrested, because he was a Boyd. However, his wife, Mary, met the ship bringing them to Scotland and warned her husband. They both fled to Denmark
.
James, III, King of Scotland married Margaret, Princess of Denmark, daughter of Christian, I, King of Denmark, on 13 July 1469 in Holyrood House, Edinburgh, Scotland. After the marriage James was strong enough to destroy the Boyds. However, his internal problems were not over. His brothers, Alexander, the Duke of Albany, and John, the Earl of Mar were serious conspirators towards obtaining the crown from James. They were arrested on suspicion of conspiring against the crown. Mar died under suspicious circumstances, leading the nobles to wonder what could happen to them if a prince of the realm could be killed. Albany was able to escape from Edinburgh Castle to England where he was received by Edward IV. James tried to reconcile with his brother but Albany again tried to win the kingdom and was, therefore, exiled to France. It was during the reign of James III that a written record of Parliament came into being to be kept in a book, which has provided historians with much information. A third university was established during his reign also.
James was interested in many things, trade, currency, ships and artillery, music and building, and could have brought about a new age within Scotland but he was lacking one basic thing, and that was any element of force in his personality.
James met another challenge to the throne that may have been more serious than that of his brothers. The Scottish lords were totally appalled about James's bisexuality. James became unpopular with his nobles because of the favorites he had at court. He lavished money and gifts, including land, on these favorites to the detriment of others. This may have been the excuse the nobles needed, not that they were so enraged about his sexual preferences, but that of his ineffectual control of law and order. Seeing a way to exact vengeance, the nobles called a meeting in a nearby church when the army was camped at Lauder. There was a loud knocking on the door during this clandestine meeting and in came Robert Cochrane, the King's favorite, lavishly dressed. The nobles were irate. One grabbed Cochrane's gold necklace, while others grabbed his jacket and tied him up. At first he thought it as a joke but then came to realize that the nobles were indeed intent on doing him harm. Some of the Scottish lords went to the King's tent, captured the King and other favorites of James. Ropes were tied around their necks. The story is that when Cochrane realized they were serious, he begged them to use a silken rope. No mercy was shown and all but the King were dragged to Lauder Bridge and hanged beneath. James was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle for three months. He was released when peace was made. However, he soon reverted to his former ways and gathered his favorites around him. Not being able to tolerate this any longer, the nobles declared war on James. They declared him unfit to rule. He had a new friend, John Ramsay, and conferred an earldom upon him, much to the aversion and displeasure of the Scottish lords. The lords pressed the cause of young Prince James who was only 15 at the time. The young James agreed to support their cause as long as his father was not harmed
.
     James died on 18 June 1488 in Beaton's Mill, Sauchieburn, Stirlingshire, aged 36. A battle resulted near Stirling and James III was thrown from his horse - he was not a very good rider. Somewhat injured, he was carried into a nearby mill. When he regained consciousness, the people at the mill asked who he was. He replied, 'I was your king this morning.' The miller's wife rushed out of the building shouting for a priest for the king. A man claiming to be a priest entered the building and bent over the King. He asked the King if his wounds were mortal. The King replied that they were not but he wished to confess his sins and receive pardon. The stranger, stabbed the King in the heart, yelling, 'This then will give you your pardon.' He escaped before anyone could identify him. He was buried in Cambuskenneth, Stirlingshire?, Scotland. James was buried in Cambuskenneth Abbey, not having reached his 37th year. His son, James IV never quite escaped the guilt for the part that he had played in his father's death.

Children of James, III, King of Scotland and Margaret,, Princess of Denmark

James, IV, King of Scotland

(17 March 1473 - 9 September 1513)
     James, IV, King of Scotland was born on 17 March 1473 in Stirling Castle?, Scotland. He was the son of James, III, King of Scotland and Margaret, Princess of Denmark. James, IV, King of Scotland ruled Scotland from 1488 to 1513.
James, IV, King of Scotland married Princess Margaret, Tudor, Queen of Scotland on 8 August 1503 in Glasgow, Lanarkshire. Wikipedia states: In a ceremony at the altar of Glasgow Cathedral on 10 December 1502, James confirmed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII of England. By this treaty James married Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor. After a wedding by proxy in London, the marriage was confirmed in person on 8 August 1503 at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh. Their wedding was commemorated by the gift of a Book of Hours. The union produced four children plus two stillbirths:
James, Duke of Rothesay (21 February 1507, Holyrood Palace – 27 February 1508, Stirling Castle)
A stillborn daughter at Holyrood Palace on 15 July 1508.
Arthur, Duke of Rothesay (20 October 1509, Holyrood Palace – Edinburgh Castle, 14 July 1510).
James V (Linlithgow Palace, 15 April 1512 – Falkland Palace, Fife, 14 December 1542), the only one to reach adulthood, and the successor of his father.
A second stillborn daughter at Holyrood Palace in November 1512.
Alexander, Duke of Ross (Stirling Castle, 30 April 1514 – Stirling Castle, 18 December 1515), born after James's death
.
Because James IV felt guilty for being involved, although unwillingly, in the death of his father, James III, he wore an iron chain around his waist as penance. Every year on the anniversary of his father's death, he added another weight to the belt.
Under James IV, Scotland was very progressive. Major changes were taking place in Europe, including the end of the feudal system. James wanted his realm to take its proper place in the new world. James gave to the Scottish realm the effective power which made it a "new monarchy: His reign was an expression of his own personality and its achievements were largely due to his own vigor and ability. Another university, the third, was founded at Aberdeen, the printing press came to Scotland, architecture flourished with the remodeling of palaces at Falkirk and Stirling Castle. A navy was established and James felt great pride for the Great Michael, the largest warship ever to have been built in Scotland. He was a true prince of the Renaissance in developing the military power of his country. The people were instructed to practice archery instead of golf and football. James was a learned man with many interests, which included sports, clothes, music, hunting, the arts, and architecture. James granted the barbers and physicians the right to form a guild and the sole right to sell whiskey which was a medicine. Each year the guild was also given the corpse of a hanged criminal in order to learn more about human anatomy. James was interested in surgery and himself extracted a tooth, set a broken leg, bled a patient. He was even interested in alchemy and financed an adventurer who thought he could find out how to produce gold.
It was reported to the King of Spain that James "is exceptionally clever, and can speak Latin, French, German, Flemish, Italian and the barbarian Gaelic, the native tongue of nearly all his subjects. He knows the Bible well and is conversant with most subjects. He is a good historian and reads Latin and French history, committing much to memory. He does not cut his hair or his beard. He is devout and says all his prayers. He maintains that the oath of a king should be his royal word, as was the case in bygone times. He is active and works hard, when he is not at war he hunts in the mountains. He is courageous. I have seen him undertake most dangerous things in the last wars. On such occasions he does not take the least care of himself." This portrait of the King by the Spaniard may have been exaggerated and he may not have spoken the number of languages that Ayala says.
At the beginning of his reign the Highlands were in turmoil, mainly due to the feud between the MacDonalds and MacKenzies. He visited the Isles six times and finally he took the Lordship of the Isles away from the MacDonalds of Islay and annexed MacDonald lands. He tried to treat the Highland chiefs like Lowland barons but this didn't work. Later he used the strongest clans, the Campbells and the Gordons to keep order. This was successful on a short term but in the long run it did not prove out as this further divided the clans because other chiefs resented the interference.
James was interested in education and made it mandatory for all men of means to send their eldest son to schools to study the arts, law and Latin. His intention was to keep the elite and wealthy in positions of power. It was also mandatory for all young men to train in warfare.
What comes through is the King's love of good government and of his people. His domestic policy was the suppression of disorder and the improvement of governmental machinery.
James wanted to marry Margaret Drummond. However, shortly after the political marriage between himself and Margaret Tudor, Henry VII's daughter, had been proposed to him, Margaret Drummond and her two sisters were found murdered. They had been poisoned. James never forgot her and prayed for her soul for the rest of his life. He married Henry VII's daughter, Margaret Tudor, with whom he had six children, only one of whom survived. This was more of a political marriage, as most were, than a romantic one. He signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace in Glasgow Cathedral. James was 28 and Margaret 12. The ceremony to receive the young Queen was filled with pageantry and something that Scotland had not seen before. "The queen was dressed in white satin damask bordered with crimson velvet, with a collar of gold and pearls, a present from the King. Her long hair nearly reached the floor. The King was also dressed in white damask with gold trimmings, over a jacket slashed in crimson satin and edged with black velvet." The queen was very unhappy away from her home. Of course, she was just a child.
Ten years after the marriage feast and the declaration of lasting peace between England and Scotland, James once more found himself at war with the English. By the auld alliance James IV was bound to support France so when Henry VIII invaded France, the Scottish king invaded England. He also had some grievances with Henry VIII because he would not send the jewelry that had been promised by Henry VII to Scotland as part of the dowry of Margaret. Another reason was that two Scottish ships had been seized by the English. Henry VIII refused to return them even though James had returned captured English vessels during Henry VII's reign.
His reign ended tragically. He and his army were wiped out at Flodden in 1513. He had gathered an army of 20,000, the most powerful that Scotland had ever put on the field and took it to Norhumbria. The Scots chose an ideal position on Flodden Hill for the battle. The Earl of Surrey who was a skillful general was in command of the English army. He realized that he had to make the Scots change position and so he marched his army to the north, cutting of their retreat. The Scots were arranged in five groups, like Bruce's formation at Bannockburn. The English were divided into two groups. The Scots had cannons but they were very unwieldy, not like the much lighter artillery of the English. Also, the English had expert German gunners at the cannons. The English shot great gaps in the ranks of the Scots. Instead of letting the English come up the hill to him, he chose to advance down the hill. The ground was slippery and the Scots could not remain a wall of spears coming toward the English. The Scots spears were 19 feet long and the English used shorter axe-like weapons which were easier to use. The central part of his army had almost reached the Earl of Surrey when James was killed. At the end of the battle at nightfall, more than 10,000 brave Scots lay dead on Flodden Hill, including the King, the Archbishop of St. Andrews, two bishops, three abbots, nine earls, fourteen lords and three Highland chiefs. Their bodies were buried in deep pits and a monument stands now to commemorate the battle and their loss.
St. Pauls Church near the battlefield has printed a booklet about the battle. It says, in part: "Thus ended the last medieval battle to be found on English soil. Never again were knights to fight in armor, their personal standards flying. Never again were arrows, swords and spears to be the decisive weapons. Small arms, still unknown at Flodden, would gradually take their place."
When James died, the people of Edinburgh felt they would never be safe from the English unless they protected themselves. They started building fortifications but the English did not attack again. The wall that was completed around the city was named Flodden Wall. Some parts of it can still be seen.
Scotland never fully recovered from the defeat. James was a popular king, the greatest by far of all the house of Stewart. He does not deserve the blame which tradition has accorded to him. It was Henry, not James, who was responsible for the war and one reason that he was ill prepared was that he strove to keep the peace to the very last. His campaign was not at fault. His defeat in battle was primarily due to the fact that his ill organized force, numerically not much more than that of the enemy, was not adequate for its task.. So many died with him, including his brilliant bastard son, the Archbishop of St. Andrews. Again, the country was to suffer the uncertainties of a long minority for James V was only 17 months old.
James's body was disembowelled, embalmed and sent to London. His body, grotesquely preserved, was kept in the Monastery of Sheen, then thrown in a lumber room. Years later itt was discovered by workmen who cut off the head and used it for a macabre plaything. It was passed from one English noble to another for years, until it was finally buried in an anonymous grave
.
     James died on 9 September 1513 in Flodden, Northumberland, England, aged 40. He was buried in Shene, Richmond, Surrey.

Children of James, IV, King of Scotland and Margaret Boyd (of Bonshaw)

Child of James, IV, King of Scotland and Margaret Drummond

Child of James, IV, King of Scotland

Child of James, IV, King of Scotland and Princess Margaret, Tudor, Queen of Scotland

James, V, King of Scotland

(15 April 1512 - 13 December 1542)
     James, V, King of Scotland was born on 15 April 1512 in Linlithgow Palace. He was the son of James, IV, King of Scotland and Princess Margaret, Tudor, Queen of Scotland. James, V, King of Scotland ruled Scotland from 1513 to 1542. James V., of Scotland, succeeded, in 1513, on the death of his father, James IV, though only eighteen months old. At the age of 17 he assumed the government, and assisted Francis I of France against Charles V., for which the former gave him his daughter Margaret in marriage. On her decease he married, in 1539, Mary of Lorraine, daughter of Claude, Duke of Guise. James died in 1542, leaving his crown to Mary Stuart, his infant daughter, then only eight days old.
     James died on 13 December 1542 in Falkland Palace, Fife, aged 30. or 14th?.

Children of James, V, King of Scotland

James, VI & 1, King of Scotland and England

(19 June 1566 - 27 March 1625)
      James VI of Scotland loathed violence and was very insecure. In fact, he wore heavily padded clothing most of his life as a method of protecting himself from being stabbed. After the raid at Stirling, he found a friend and protector, Esme Stuart, whom he made Duke of Lennox. Esme had spent most of his life in France and was educated and sophisticated. Morton had given James a certain amount of power and as his confidence grew, Morton could no longer control him. Morton was accused by James Stewart of being in on the plot to kill Darnley and James did nothing to protect Morton who was executed.
It is believed that the relationship between Lennox and James was a homosexual one. It was Lennox who put forth the idea to James of the divine right of Kings, that he was above the people and the Church, whereas Knox and the Presbyterians thought that the King should rule Scotland for God and be an ordinary member of the Kirk.
Regents: The coronation of James was not exactly the splendid pageant one would expect. Only 7 lords showed up to see him crowned King of Scotland. The Earl of Moray, who was a strong Protestant, was made Regent for James. However, his Regency did not last long as he was assassinated in 1570. Three Regents followed, with James being the pawn in their struggle for power, until James began his rule in 1585 at the age of 21. Scotland had suffered from a succession of kings who had been crowned as children and the country was ruled by regents for 100 of the years between 1406 and 1587. The second Regent was James' grandfather, the Earl of Lennox (Darnley's father). Lennox was elderly and ineffectual and was shot during a raid. The third was the Earl of Mar who held the office for less than a year before he died, albeit of natural causes. The last Regent was the Earl of Morton who had been a ringleader in the killing of Darnley and Rissio (Mary Queen of Scot's trusted counselor and confidant). Morton is reported to have been a "crude, uneducated thug" but his strength kept Scotland together. He kept in favor with Elizabeth, defeated the Catholics who were trying to restore Mary and kept the Protestant ministers from taking over the government. The Earls of Argyll and Atholl opposed Morton. Morton's plan was to resign the regency and control the government from behind the scenes. During this struggle for power, the young Earl of Mar who was a Morton supporter stormed into Stirling Castle and captured the King. James was terrified. Mar had been his old guardian's son and a playmate as a child. He learned that you could trust no one.
. James, VI & 1, King of Scotland and England was born on 19 June 1566 in Edinburgh Castle, Midlothian, Scotland. He married Anne of Denmark. He was the son of Henry Stewart Lord Darnley and Mary Stewart Queen of Scots.
     James died on 27 March 1625 aged 58.

Joan,,

     Joan, was the daughter of John, King of England.
Joan, married Llywelyn The Great ab Iowerth Prince of Gwynedd, son of Iorweth Drwyndwn ab Owain Gwynedd and Margred ferch Madog, circa 1204. In as much as there is much confusion in printed sources and newsgroup archives regarding the marriage date of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales, and his wife, Joan, illegitimate daughter of King John, Douglas Richardson of the Gen-Medieval Mailing list, contacted the English historian, Louise Wilkinson, Ph.D. Dr. Wilkinson recently delivered a paper on Joan at the Tenth Thirteenth Century England Conference held at St. Aidan's College, Durham in September 2003 [see website for details of conference ~ [EMAIL:]http://www.dur.ac.uk/History/confs/tce.htm[:EMAIL]].
Dr. Wilkinson replied:
"... references to the marriage settlement first appear in the records of the English Chancery in October 1204. See Rot. Litt. Claus. I, p.12. The charter, formally recording the settlement, appears in April 1205. See Rot. Litt. Claus., I.i., p. 147." [Note: Rot. Litt. Claus. is an abbreviation for Rotuli Litterarum Clausarum in Turri Londinensi].
Dr. Wilkinson stated that she has "encountered problems sorting out the daughters [of Joan]," and has "generally been guided by A.J. Roderick, 'Marriage and Politics, 1066-1282', Welsh Hist. Review, 4, 1968-69."
Dr Wilkinson also recommended "an extremely good article" by Huw Pryce on Llywelyn and Joan entitled 'Negotiating Anglo-Welsh
Relations: Llywelyn the Great and Henry III,' which article is found in the book, England and Europe in the Reign of Henry III, edited by B.K.U. Weiler and I.W. Rowlands (Aldershot, 2002).

Joan,, Princess of England

( - 14 August 1362)
     Joan, Princess of England was also known as Joanna Plantagenet (of the Tower) in records. She was born in England. She was the sister of Edward III and daughter of Edward II.
Joan, Princess of England married David, II Bruce, King of Scotland, son of Robert, the Bruce, King of Scotland and Elizabeth de Burgh, on 17 July 1328 in Berwick Upon Tweed, England.
     Joan died on 14 August 1362 in London.

Joan, Sister of Henry III,

     Joan, Sister of Henry III, married Alexander, II, King of Scotland, son of William the Lion, King of Scotland and Ermengarde de Beaumont, in 1221.

Child of Joan, Sister of Henry III, and Alexander, II, King of Scotland

John Lord of the Isles

     John Lord of the Isles was also known as Eoin in records. He was the son of Angus Og of Islay.
John Lord of the Isles married Margaret Stewart, daughter of Robert, II Stewart, King of Scotland and Elizabeth Mure, after 14 June 1350 in Scotland. On that date, they received a Papal dispensation to marry. She was his second wife.

Child of John Lord of the Isles and Margaret Stewart

John,, King of England

Child of John,, King of England

John, Duke of Burgundy,

(28 March 1371 - 10 September 1419)
     John was nick-named The Fearless. He was born on 28 March 1371 in Dijon, France. He was the son of Philip Duke of Burgundy and Margaret Countess of Flanders.
John, Duke of Burgundy, married Margarethe von Bayern, daughter of Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing and Margaret von Schlesien-Brieg, on 12 April 1385.
     John died on 10 September 1419 in Montereau, France, aged 48. He was assassinated on Montereau bridge as talks commenced with King Charles VII of France.

Child of John, Duke of Burgundy, and Margarethe von Bayern