Capt Richard Poole

(7 January 1619/20 - before 18 September 1678)
     Capt Richard Poole was christened on 7 January 1619/20 in New Shoreham, Sussex. According to the confirmation of his grant of arms in 1648 he was the second son of Mr Thomas Poole, only son and heir of Captain Richard Poole, of Sussex, and was educated for 6 years in France and also some time in Spain, and he was descended from a noble and very ancient family of that surname in Cheshire. He was the son of Thomas Poole and Ellen Aylwin. Capt Richard Poole was baptized on 28 January 1620/21 in New Shoreham.
     Richard served in the Royal Navy. He bore arms: Confirmation of arms of Poole - Whereas therefore Captain Richard Poole, second son of Mr Thomas Poole, only son and heir of Captain Richard Poole, of the county of Sussex, having had his education for the space of 6 years in the kingdom of France and also some time in the Kingdom of Spain, and having for the space of a year and a half been Lieuteneant to Capt Thomas Plunkett of this kingdom in a ship of war called the Discovery being of burther 400 tons .. I am no less credinly certified that the said Captain Richard Poole is descended from a noble and very ancient family of that surname in Cheshire, who very anciently have borne for the Coat Armour, viz. Azure, semee flory or, a lion rampart guardent agent. And for that Captain Richard Poole first above-mentioned hath for the space of about 5 years last past served His Majesty against the Irish rebels, as is afsd, and hath desired me to certify under the seal of my office the Coate armour and Crest of his ancestors, so differenced according to the law of Arms, as he and his posterity for ever my lawfully bear the same... this achievement ensuing, depicted in the margin, by the name of Poole, and Blazoned as followeth, viz; Azure semee flory or, a lion rampant guardant of the second, on a canton Argent a ship with her mainsail furtled proper, And for his crest, On a helmet, and wreath of his colours, a mermaid proper, holding betwixt her hands a naval crown, or, mantled gules, doubled argent, which said achievement, I the said Ulster King of Arms by ..... grant him .... the last day of May in the four & twentieth year of his Majesty's reign A.D. 1648, W Roberts, Ulster, Dublin Castle.
The coat was differenced in accordance with his profession.
     Capt Richard Poole was mentioned in the will of Thomas Poole dated 3 November 1651.
     Administration of the estate of Thomas Poole was granted to Capt Richard Poole, on 9 June 1654 in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury Thomas Poole the nynth day of June 1654 there issued forth l'res of ad'on to Richard Poole the n'rall and lawful sonne of Thomas Poole late of Shoreham in the countie of Sussex deced to adminster the goods and chattels and debtes of the said deceased hee beinge first sworn faithfullie to administer by order of court.      
Capt Richard Poole paid tax on 5 hearths in 1662 in Old Shoreham, Sussex, England. The third name on the list for the bailiwick of Old Shoreham wa Richard Poole, gen [Thomas crossed out] 5 hearths.
In 1665, Richard Poole was appointed Captain of the "Drake," which was launched at Deptford in 1652-the third ship of war bearing that name -a ship which has had a long line of successors in the British Navy, … In the Admiralty records (Bill Office), under date 16th March, 1666, is a payment of £13 9s. 2d. " to Captain Richard Poole, Commander of His Majesty's ship the Drake, for so much disbursed in prest and conduct money, and other charges in presting 83 men to serve his Majesty."
While in command of this vessel, Richard Poole was remarkably successful in capturing a number of French ships in the Channel, immediately after the declaration of War against France and Holland; among them the "Frances " of Bordeaux, which he took in March, 1666, and brought into Shoreham Harbour.
     Richard died before 18 September 1678. We find no record of Captain Richard Poole's death, but from an Admiralty Bill, dated 30th October, 1678, it is apparent that he died some time between 15th April and 18th September in that year. Possibly he was killed in action. The Bill refers to a, contract, made 15th April, 1678, with Richard Poole, master and part-owner of " ye Richard and Thomas" (a small ship which seems to have been so named after himself and his elder brother). "According to Mr. Thomas Lewsley's certificate," so runs the document, " we pray you to pay unto Mr. Thomas Poole, brother and administrator to ye above said Richard Poole, deceased, for ye use of himself and ye rest of ye owners, for hire and freight of the vessel for ye space of five calendar months and four days, from 15th April, '78, which day she entered into his Majesty's service to ye 18th September following, ye day of her discharge, being employed for the use of a war, and to attend upon his Majesty's ship the . . . (word illegible) at £5 per tunn for each tunn of her burthen. Ditto the sum of £80 15s. 7d." There were two small abatements for stores and victualling, but the nett amount paid to Thomas Poole for the services of this ship appears to have amounted to £392 9s. 10d.
     The administration of his estate was granted to Thomas Poole on 30 September 1678 at PCC. On 30 Sep 1678 a Commission issued forth to Thomas Poole the natural and lawful brother of Richard Poole, late of Shoreham, Sussex deceased to administer his goods, chattles & debts.
However Thomas had died in 1672, so a date must be wrong.

Robert Poole

(27 August 1584 - )
     Robert Poole was christened on 27 August 1584 in Goring, Sussex. He was the son of Thomas Poole.

Samuel Handy Townsend Poole

(March 1869 - before 27 October 1932)
     Samuel Handy Townsend Poole's birth was registered in the quarter ending in March 1869 in Liscard, New Brighton RD, Cheshire. He was the son of William Alanson Makin Poole and Emily Frances Handy. Samuel Handy Townsend Poole was christened on 8 June 1869 in New Brighton, Cheshire. Samuel, Annie, Marion and Annie were listed as Emily Frances Handy's children in the 1901 census in 'Elm Bank', Woodham Rd, Horsell, Surrey.
     In Charles John Townsend Handy's will dated 6 September 1902 in 4 Union Terrace, New Brighton, Liscard, Cheshire, Samuel Handy Townsend Poole was named as executor of the estate. He was an executor of Charles John Townsend Handy's estate on 11 December 1919 in Cheshire District Registry.
     Samuel died before 27 October 1932 in Sussex.
Wills and bequests, gifts to charity: Poole, Mr Samuel Handy Townsend, of Hassocks, Sussex, net personality £23,878), gross value £26, 454.

Susanna Poole

(say 1720 - before 27 January 1779)
     Susanna Poole was born say 1720 in England. She was the daughter of John Poole and Elizabeth Geere.
Susanna Poole married Capt James O'Hara on 11 September 1754 in New Shoreham, Sussex. Lieut HMS Dolphin of St James Westminster & Susanna Poole.
     In Rachel Poole's will dated 13 March 1770 in Benfeuls, Hangleton, Sussex, Susanna Poole was named as heir.
     Susanna Poole and Thomas Poole were beneficiaries in Eleanor Poole's will dated 23 April 1776 in New Shoreham, Sussex.
     In Thomas Poole's will dated 28 October 1778 in New Shoreham, Susanna Poole was named as heir.
     Susanna died before 27 January 1779 in Old Shoreham, Sussex. She was buried on 27 January 1779 in Old Shoreham.
     The administration of her estate was granted to Capt James O'Hara on 19 March 1779 at the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. Late of New Shoreham, to her husband.

Thomas Poole

(October 1592 - 15 November 1652)
     Thomas Poole was born in October 1592 in New Shoreham, Sussex. He was the son of Capt Richard Poole and Alice Cheesman. Thomas Poole was christened on 29 October 1594 in St Mary le Haura, New Shoreham.
Thomas Poole married Ellen Aylwin, daughter of Thomas Aylwin, on 9 December 1616 in Poynings, Sussex.
In 1623 Thomas Poole purchased property in Peacock Hill, Cowfold, Sussex, in 1623. In 1623 he purchased of Richard Awood and Agnes his wife, an estate at Cowfold, known as Peacock Hill, and this property remained in the possession of his descendants until sold by the Trustees of the will of George Henry Hooper of Stanmore Middlesex, and New Shoreham, who died in 1863.      
Thomas Poole was listed in the Protestation returns in March 1641/42 in Cowfold, Sussex. There was also a Richard Shepheard & a John Cheeseman there. The return for New Shoreham is missing and Richard Poole made his mark at Old Shoreham heading the list. He was widowed before 15 June 1643 on the death of his wife Ellen Aylwin.
Thomas Poole married Joan Freeland on 22 November 1643 in St Nicholas, Brighton, Sussex.
     Thomas Poole made a will dated 3 November 1651. Will (? copy made for probate) of Thomas Poole the elder of Old Shoreham, gent - 3 Nov. 1651
Bequeaths to son Richard all his copyhold lands in Old Shoreham and New Shoreham; and freehold lands in Old Shoreham and New Shoreham, which descended to the testator after the death of Richard Poole, his father
Bequeaths to his eldest son Thomas £5; to dau. Eleanor Poole £100, one cabinet, one featherbed, one bedstead and all things belonging thereunto as it 'now standeth in the Parlour Chamber' of the testator's dwelling house in Old Shoreham, together with half a dozen' of Pewter'; to wife Joan £10
Appoints said s. Richard as residuary legatee of his goods, both at sea and at land, and sole executor
Witnesses - James Goodyeare, Thomas Banister, Nicholas Masters, Thomas Smith.

     Thomas died on 15 November 1652 in Cowfold, Sussex, aged 60. He was buried in St Nicholas, New Shoreham. ...likewise heere lyeth interred Thomas the only sonn of Cap: Richard Poole who departed this life the 15 of November 1652 aged 60 years This entry is not in the register.
     The administration of his estate was granted to Capt Richard Poole on 9 June 1654 at the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. Thomas Poole the nynth day of June 1654 there issued forth l'res of ad'on to Richard Poole the n'rall and lawful sonne of Thomas Poole late of Shoreham in the countie of Sussex deced to adminster the goods and chattels and debtes of the said deceased hee beinge first sworn faithfullie to administer by order of court.

Children of Thomas Poole and Ellen Aylwin

Thomas Poole

(June 1617 - after 1 May 1672)
     Thomas Poole was born in June 1617 in New Shoreham, Sussex. He was the son of Thomas Poole and Ellen Aylwin. Thomas Poole was christened on 15 March 1617/18 in New Shoreham. Thomas was a merchant in New Shoreham.
Thomas Poole married Faith Marlott, daughter of William Marlott and Faith Killingworth, before 1649.
He was one of the assessors and collectors in the Borough of Shoreham for the tax raised by Act of Parliament in April 1649 for Army purposes. On 13 July 1649, "Thos. Poole the yr." was appointed Constable of the Borough of New Shoreham (Quarter Sessions Order Book, Sussex Record Soc.3 p.177).
     Thomas Poole was mentioned in the will of Thomas Poole dated 3 November 1651. Thomas was supervisor in the will of Thomas Poole dated 17 August 1652.
     Thomas Poole was mentioned in the 1662 hearth tax list in Old Shoreham, Sussex, paying tax on 2 hearths. Thomas Poole paid the hearth tax on 2 hearths in the Bailiwick of Old Shoreham.
     Thomas Poole was mentioned in the 1662 hearth tax list in New Shoreham paying tax on 2 hearths. Thomas Poole had 4 hearths in the Borough of New Shoreham.
     Thomas Poole made a will dated 1 May 1672 in New Shoreham. I Thomas Poole of New Shoreham, Ssx, merchant being sick in body but of good and perfect memory ... I give to the poor of the parish 40/- Item I give to my sonne Richard the house malt-house now in my occupation called the name of Dukes with the barne stable and appurtenances thereunto belong I give unto my daughter Ellen in money £300 ... I give unto my son William the house field and orchard now in the occupation of William Grover being free-hold Also I give to the said William £100 ... all the rest of my goods and chattels I give and bequeath to my sonne Thomas ... I do give more to my sonne William my house now in the occupation of John Patching as also the house and shope with the appurtenances in the occupation of William Smith being Free-hold in New Shoreham ...
     Thomas died after 1 May 1672 in New Shoreham, Sussex.
     His will was proved on 1 July 1672 at Lewes Archdeaconry, Sussex.
     Administration of the estate of Capt Richard Poole was granted to Thomas Poole, on 30 September 1678 in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury On 30 Sep 1678 a Commission issued forth to Thomas Poole the natural and lawful brother of Richard Poole, late of Shoreham, Sussex deceased to administer his goods, chattles & debts.
However Thomas had died in 1672, so a date must be wrong.

Children of Thomas Poole and Faith Marlott

Thomas Poole

(27 September 1652 - before 24 November 1699)
     Thomas Poole was born on 27 September 1652 in New Shoreham, Sussex. He was the son of Thomas Poole and Faith Marlott.
     Thomas Poole was mentioned in the Visitation in 1662. Thomas, son and heir of Thomas Poole of New Shoreham, aet 11 anno, with his siblings Richard, William & Ellen.
He or his brother is probably the "Mr Poole, muster master at Shoreham" mentioned in Feb 1698 in connection with the seizure of ships suspected of smuggling.
     Thomas died before 24 November 1699 in New Shoreham, Sussex. He was buried on 24 November 1699 in St Mary le Haura, New Shoreham. Captain Thomas Poole.
     The administration of his estate was granted to William Poole on 12 November 1700 at Lewes Archdeaconry, Sussex. Gentleman late of New Shoreham, to his brother William Poole.

Thomas Poole

(29 April 1722 - 4 November 1778)
     Thomas Poole was born on 29 April 1722 in Plymouth, Devon. He was the son of John Poole and Elizabeth Geere. Thomas Poole was christened on 3 May 1722 in Plymouth.
     Administration of the estate of Elizabeth Poole was granted to Thomas Poole, on 23 October 1762 in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury Late of New Shoreham, spinster, to her brother Thomas.
     In Rachel Poole's will dated 13 March 1770 in Benfeuls, Hangleton, Sussex, Thomas Poole was named as heir.
He lived in the Poole mansion at New Shoreham, which stood in the High Street, and was later demolished to make way for the Customs House (now the Town Hall). Here he and his sister Miss Nelly Poole lived in good style, "keeping their carriage, the livery of the coachman and footman being scarlet plush". Their grand-nephew, Dr Robert Hooper of Saville Row and Stanmore, Middlesex, adopted the same style. The mansion was Elizabethan, with a spacious entrance hall and principal apartments, and elaborate decoration.
The residence of the Poole family at Old Shoreham stood in a large garden near the village, quite close to the river, and was latterly used as the Parish Workhouse, being demolished when no longer needed for that purpose, on the erection of the Union Workhouse at New Shoreham.
Thomas Poole was churchwarden of New Shoreham, and his name was inscribed on a bell recast in 1767. On his death the property passed to the issue of Captain Fawler by Mary Poole.
     Thomas Poole and Susanna Poole were beneficiaries in Eleanor Poole's will dated 23 April 1776 in New Shoreham, Sussex.
     Thomas Poole made a will dated 28 October 1778 in New Shoreham. New Shoreham, Ssx: I Thomas Poole Esquire ... I give & bequeath to my sister Susanna wife of that most infamous and great scoundrel James O'Hara Esquire bastard of that most accomplished and great General Baron Tyrawley ... £3000 in stock, my freehold estate situate on the Common near Portsmouth, lands and tenements in the parish of Old Shoreham ... £100 yearly, freehold estate in the parish of Cowfold with timber to the value of 1000 guineas, all freehold estate in the parish of Beeding alias Seale in the co of Sussex £120 yearly, freehold and copyhold estates in New Shoreham ... to Susanna during her lifetime then to her husband for his lifetime then unto the son of my nephew Thomas Fawler surgeon at Clapham, Surrey but if the said Thomas Fawler has no son then I give & bequeath the several estates afsd unto Thomas Poole Hooper son of John Hooper linen draper in Oxford St, Mdx under the guardianship of the Vicar of New Shoreham ... and to send the son of Thos Fawler or Thomas Poole Hooper to Trinity College Cambridge at the age of 12 years there to be instructed in mathematical learning till he attains the age of 15 years under a professor of geometry after which time he is at Liberty to take the degrees of Doctor of Divinity Canon and Civil Laws or Physic ... allows £100 annually to be paid by the vicar or churchwardens of New Shoreham to the said professor of geometry, and 50 guineas annually as pocket money to the son of Thomas Fawler or Thomas Poole Hooper to be given occasionally at the discretion of the professor of geometry; bequeaths to 'the said Geometrical professor' 20 guineas annually, giving him full power to draw on the vicar or churchwardens of New Shoreham quarterly.
     Thomas died on 4 November 1778 in New Shoreham, Sussex, England, aged 56. He was buried on 18 November 1778 in St Nicholas, Old Shoreham, Sussex. Thomas Poole esq. of New Shoreham.
     His will was proved on 24 April 1779 at PCC.

Thomas Poole

(5 August 1637 - before 1652)
     Thomas Poole was born on 5 August 1637 in England. He was the son of Ludowick Poole and Elizabeth Tippett. Thomas Poole was christened on 10 August 1637.
     Thomas died before 1652. He may be the Thomas Poole who was buried at New Shoreham on 19 June 1643.

Thomas Poole

(say 1620 - )
     Thomas Poole was born say 1620 in England. He was the son of William (Patriarch?) Poole.
     Thomas Poole and Ursula Poole (Nash) were beneficiaries in William (Patriarch?) Poole's will dated 25 July 1623 in Iden, Sussex. Thomas was baker in August 1652, London.
     In Ludowick Poole's will dated 23 August 1652 in Woolwich, Kent, Thomas Poole was named as heir.

Thomas Poole

(before 1540 - 1569?)
      The Victoria county history of Sussex states: Shoreham (Footnote 93) lies on the left bank of the river Adur where the river enters the English Channel. In the late 11th century a new town was planted by the river's mouth, and was later called New Shoreham in distinction from the earlier settlement of Old Shoreham. The borough of New Shoreham became one of the most important channel ports in the 12th and 13th centuries, but declined in the 14th. Its trade as a harbour and its usefulness for shipbuilding were subject to the drifting banks that from time to time blocked the river's mouth and gradually pushed the entrance eastward. From the late 18th century onwards the improvement of the harbour and the needs of the growing populations of Brighton (5½ miles to the east) and Worthing (4 miles to the west), neither of which had a harbour, greatly increased Shoreham's trade. In the 20th century the town spread outside the narrow limits of the urban parish of New Shoreham (from 1910 called Shoreham-by-Sea) into the rural parishes of Old Shoreham on the north and Kingston by Sea on the east. Eastward from the Adur the built-up area stretched in 1976 right across Kingston and Southwick and through Portslade to Hove and Brighton. Shoreham forms, indeed, the western end of what may be regarded as the Brighton conurbation. The present article covers the history of the ancient parishes of Old and New Shoreham. It also covers the history of Shoreham harbour, which lies partly in Kingston and Southwick, and of industrial development associated with the harbour, but in other respects Kingston and Southwick are treated separately. Shoreham Beach was formerly part of Lancing parish, and its history, in so far as it can be separated from that of the harbour, is included above under Lancing.
The parishes of Old and New Shoreham were originally a single parish, forming a compact area, roughly rectangular with a projection at the northeast corner. The river Adur marked the western boundary, the northern boundary ran fairly straight across the downs without regard to the configuration of the land, and the southern part of the eastern boundary followed a straight line marked in recent times by Eastern Avenue. The shape of the projection at the north-east corner and its relationship to tracks across the downs suggest that the parish absorbed what had formerly been part of the land of Kingston or Southwick or had belonged to no parish. The southern boundary was formerly along the coastline, but the shingle bank that gradually extended eastward from the western lip of the river's mouth was considered to be part of Lancing parish, to which it was physically joined, and the river where it ran parallel to the shore was for long the southern boundary of Shoreham. (Footnote 94)
New Shoreham parish formed the southern, seaside end of the original parish of Shoreham, and in 1873 amounted to 116 a. excluding tidal water and foreshore. Although it had always been a small, urban parish, it was presumably more extensive before it was reduced by coastal erosion or subsidence in the 14th and 15th centuries. Old Shoreham, the remainder of the original parish, comprised 1,920 a., excluding tidal water and foreshore, in 1873.
The former parishes of Old and New Shoreham lie on the narrow coastal plain between the sea and the South Downs, and Old Shoreham stretched up towards the crest of the downs. On each side of a dry valley the land rises to a narrow but bold spur jutting from the higher part of the downs: on the west, where the ground falls precipitously towards the river and its meadows, the slopes above Mill Hill reach 340 ft., and on the east the top of Slonk Hill, site of early Iron Age and Romano-British settlements with an extensive area of lynchets, stands at 290 ft. In the north-east projection of what was Old Shoreham parish the land rises, on a spur pointing south-east, to 490 ft. at Thundersbarrow Hill, bearing the remains of a pre-Roman enclosure and defensive earthwork and of another RomanoBritish village with extensive lynchets. (Footnote 97) The soil of the whole area lies on the Upper Chalk, (Footnote 98) which on the lower ground is overlain by alluvium.
The natural feature of most influence in the history of Shoreham is its river, formerly called the Shoreham, Beeding, or Bramber river but since the 17th century, on false antiquarian grounds, the Adur. (Footnote 99) Its alignment and character have, like its name, changed over the centuries. In early times it formed a broad tidal estuary between Shoreham and Lancing, where it is reckoned to have been 1½ mile across in the late 11th century (Footnote 1) when the port of New Shoreham was established. It has been convincingly argued that in the Middle Ages the mouth did not lie open to the sea (Footnote 2) but was protected by a shingle bar separated from firm land by a lagoon and later by tidal marshes: an outlet due south of the gap through the downs was kept open by the strong ebb and flow of the tides. (Footnote 3) The outlet was sometimes blocked, presumably by shingle, as in 1368, (Footnote 4) and conversely the bar did not always protect the estuary, for in 1348 the eastern part of New Shoreham town was beginning to be washed away by the tides (Footnote 5) and in the early 15th century part of the town had been destroyed by the sea. (Footnote 6) It is not clear how long the river continued to run into the open sea immediately south-west of New Shoreham. The mouth of the river may have remained there until the mid 16th century, (Footnote 7) but alternatively the opening may already have moved eastward, bending the river's course, by the mid 14th century, since it was the eastern side of New Shoreham that was threatened in 1348.
By the earlier 16th century land was being reclaimed within the estuary. (Footnote 8) At Old Shoreham the riverside meadow called the Brooks in 1612 had been subject to tides until c. 1555. (Footnote 9) Natural silting and the process of inning (Footnote 10) gradually reduced the volume of tidal water that flowed through the opening to the sea, so that the flow was insufficient to counteract the tendency of wind and tide to deposit shingle and push the opening eastward. (Footnote 11) Already in 1587 the river met a broad shingle beach which caused it to turn sharply eastward round the southern side of New Shoreham town and find its way into the sea ½ mile east of the church. (Footnote 12) During the 17th century the opening moved eastward rapidly: by 1698 it was more than 2 miles east of New Shoreham church, roughly opposite Fishersgate in Southwick, and the haven's mouth, obstructed by islands of shingle thrown up by rough seas, was said to be a dry bar on the ebb of spring tides. (Footnote 13) In 1699 and 1703 storms choked the mouth, and a new one was cut through the beach opposite New Shoreham, (Footnote 14) but again the opening moved east: by 1724 it was 3 miles east of New Shoreham church and by 1753 nearly four. (Footnote 15) Shipwrights and merchants of Shoreham alleged in 1732 that it was Sir John Shelley's building of a dam across the main channel of the river in Coombes parish that had caused the blockage at the mouth by making the amount of water insufficient to scour the harbour as of old, but they also averred that the river and harbour had never previously been blocked. (Footnote 16)
Following petitions that referred to the recent alteration of the harbour entrance and the difficulties and dangers for shipping (Footnote 17) an Act was obtained in 1760 for constructing a new entrance, protected by piers, opposite Kingston and for charging harbour dues. (Footnote 18) The work was carried out inadequately, a storm in 1763 undermined the piers, and the entrance again began to move eastward; notwithstanding attempts to fix it in successive new positions, by 1815 it was 1½ mile east of the 1760 site. Under a new Act of 1816 the entrance was rebuilt in 1821 a little west of the 1760 site, (Footnote 19) and there it has remained, subject to improvement and further protection against the continuing movement of shingle. (Footnote 20) Modern engineering works in the harbour are outlined below, along with the economic activity of the port.
One result of the silting of the river mouth was the formation before 1622 of a mud-bank or island, at first washed over by the tides, immediately west of New Shoreham town. (Footnote 21) It was called Scurvy Bank and at times had an offshoot upstream called Mardyke Bank. (Footnote 22) In the 17th century the main channel of the river flowed west of the bank, (Footnote 23) but as a result, it was said, of Sir John Shelley's works at Coombes, the main channel had moved by the mid 18th century to the eastern side; (Footnote 24) by the later 19th century the western channel was no more than a drainage ditch. (Footnote 25) The bank provided rough grazing and was disputed between the lords of New Shoreham and Lancing manors; (Footnote 26) in the mid 19th century it was disputed between the parishes of Lancing and New Shoreham, (Footnote 27) being later regarded as part of New Shoreham. In 1921 the land was given as a recreation ground for the use of the inhabitants of Shoreham, drainage and reclamation being completed in 1925; in 1976 it was managed by Adur district council. (Footnote 28)
Shoreham is the nearest channel port to London. The route used in the 12th and 13th centuries, when Shoreham was at the height of its importance as a cross-channel port, is likely to have been that over the downs from Upper Beeding. From Beeding Hill it approached Shoreham not over Mill Hill but past New Erringham, (Footnote 29) at the head of the valley between Mill Hill and Slonk Hill; between New Erringham and Slonk Hill the road divided in the 17th century, leading on the right due south to New Shoreham and on the left towards Kingston and Brighton. (Footnote 30) It was used as a main road to Brighton in the 18th century, (Footnote 31) and the farm-house at New Erringham served as a coaching inn. (Footnote 32) From Beeding Hill to Kingston the road was turnpiked in 1807, but in 1828 that line of road was replaced as the turnpike by a new one, which remained a turnpike until 1885, along the river valley from Beeding to Old Shoreham bridge. (Footnote 33)
A road from Brighton to Old Shoreham, close under the downs and possibly the Ashway of 1229, (Footnote 34) was also the only way in the 17th century from Brighton to New Shoreham, which was linked with that road by what were later called Buckingham Road and Mill Lane. (Footnote 35) Until the late 16th century there had been a road along the coast (Footnote 36) but it was destroyed by erosion. A new coast road was built between 1782 and 1789, (Footnote 37) and that under the downs became known as Upper Brighton (later Upper Shoreham) Road. (Footnote 38) At Old Shoreham the upper road was carried across the river by a ferry which was recorded in 1612 as part of the earl of Arundel's barony of Bramber (Footnote 39) and in 1651 as part of Old Shoreham manor though claimed by the earl of Arundel; (Footnote 40) the claim was later successful. (Footnote 41) The ferry was not reliable. In the 16th century merchandise from Shoreham harbour crossed the river at Bramber bridge, (Footnote 42) and in 1752 a traveller preferred to go round that way. (Footnote 43) In 1753 the ferry was described as a horse ferry, fordable at low water. (Footnote 44) In 1781, when it was said to be dangerous and frequently impassable, its owner Charles Howard, the future duke of Norfolk, obtained an Act to replace the ferry with a bridge, (Footnote 45) opened in 1782; it was built of timber trestles and was rebuilt to a similar but not identical design in 1916. It ceased to carry much traffic when the Norfolk Suspension Bridge ¾ mile downstream at New Shoreham was opened in 1833, and it was transferred to the railway company when the line from Shoreham to Horsham was built in 1861. (Footnote 46) Tolls, described as scandalously high in the late 18th century, (Footnote 47) continued to be paid until the bridge was closed to vehicles on the opening of the by-pass ¼ mile north in 1968. (Footnote 48) The ferry may originally have been ¼ mile upstream of the bridge, (Footnote 49) on the line of the Roman road and of the upper Brighton road. That line was still marked by a track in 1850, (Footnote 50) but by the mid 18th century the road from Brighton turned sharply south ¼ mile east of the river. When the bridge was opened in 1782 the main road was re-aligned further south, to cut off the bend. (Footnote 51) That road was replaced as the main road between Brighton and New Shoreham, however, by the lower road, which became a turnpike in 1822, leading onward from New Shoreham to Old Shoreham bridge by a road, (Footnote 52) Old Shoreham Road, which had been built beside the river between 1753 and 1782. (Footnote 53) In 1830 the duke of Norfolk undertook to build a bridge to carry the road across the river at New Shoreham. (Footnote 54) The Norfolk Suspension Bridge, opened in 1833, was designed by W. Tierney Clarke, with a massive portal at each end surmounted by a stone animal. (Footnote 55) In 1835 the road was re-aligned slightly further north where it left New Shoreham on the east. (Footnote 56) The Brighton, Shoreham, and Lancing road ceased to be a turnpike in 1878, (Footnote 57) but the bridge, sold to the county council in 1903 (Footnote 58) and rebuilt in 1923 as a bridge of four braced girders, not significantly wider than the first bridge, (Footnote 59) remained a toll bridge until 1927. (Footnote 60) It continued to take most of the road traffic along the south coast until 1968, (Footnote 61) when a four-lane road cutting through the downs and bypassing Shoreham was built from the old upper road in Kingston to a new bridge across the river and an elaborate junction with the Beeding road.
A ferry across the estuary at New Shoreham belonged c. 1235 to William de Bernehus, who held land in Sompting, (Footnote 62) and afterwards passed to William Paynel, lord of Cokeham in Sompting, who in 1316 granted it with Cokeham to Hardham priory. (Footnote 63) The ferry, recorded as part of the estates of the earl of Arundel in the 1660s and in 1732, (Footnote 64) may later have gone out of use: it was not recorded in 1753 (Footnote 65) or when the Norfolk Suspension Bridge was authorized in 1830. (Footnote 66) The ferry and ford to Shoreham Beach and the footbridge of 1921 are mentioned elsewhere. (Footnote 67).
In 1086 the enumerated population of Shoreham was 76, with an additional 7 in the subsidiary settlement of Erringham, (Footnote 76) a population which was recorded as exclusively agricultural. The agricultural part of the two parishes, comprising Old Shoreham and Erringham, had 27 taxpayers in 1296, 24 in 1327, and 18 in 1332, Erringham's contribution to the total being 10, 10, and 8. (Footnote 77) The chief manor of Old Shoreham had 35 villein tenants in 1300. (Footnote 78) In 1378 23 people in Old Shoreham and 17 in Erringham were assessed for the poll tax. (Footnote 79) In 1525 there were 21 taxpayers in Old Shoreham and Erringham, Erringham being represented by a man and his three servants. (Footnote 80) In 1642 the parish contained 39 adult males. (Footnote 81) Twenty-four people were assessed for the hearth tax in 1662; Erringham was not separately assessed. (Footnote 82) There were 74 adults in the parish in 1676. (Footnote 83) By 1801 there were 37 houses, with a population of 188; numbers grew fairly steadily to a peak of 285, living in 52 houses, in 1871. A small rise in the population after 1881 represents the expansion of New Shoreham town into Old Shoreham parish; from 1911 onwards the separate figures for Old Shoreham relate only to the scattered settlement of Erringham. (Footnote 84)
New Shoreham in 1296, when it was at or near the peak of its medieval prosperity, had 90 taxpayers. The fall in the number to 43 in 1327, 56 in 1332, (Footnote 85) and 36 in 1341 (Footnote 86) resulted partly from changes in the method of assessment and partly, it seems, from a decline in population. A large part of the town was said to lie waste in 1368, but it is not clear whether the action of the sea, of enemies, or of economic forces was responsible. (Footnote 87) In 1421 it was averred that whereas there had been 500 inhabitants in the earlier 14th century there then remained only 36 residents; (Footnote 88) possibly the shrinkage was exaggerated by comparing the total population at the earlier date with the number of householders at the later. In 1548 there were said to be 80 or more communicants, (Footnote 89) and in 1566 New and Old Shoreham together were thought to contain 46 houses. (Footnote 90) Twenty people in New Shoreham were assessed for the subsidy in 1524, (Footnote 91) and c. 80 for the hearth tax between 1662 and 1670, (Footnote 92) apparently representing a considerable increase in the late 16th century and early 17th. (Footnote 93) From just under 800 in 1801 and 1811 the population grew steadily to 3,678 in 1871, the increase being attributed to the improvement of the harbour in the twenties, to the trade of the port and the railway in the forties, and to shipbuilding and the oyster-fishery in the fifties. After a slight fall in the seventies and eighties the steady increase began again, and the population of the enlarged civil parish of Shoreham-by-Sea rose from 4,120 in 1901 to 6,945 in 1931. The rate of increase in the civil parish then slackened but was more than balanced in the urban district as a whole, where the arithmetical rate of increase accelerated between 1901 (when the population was 4,665) and 1951 (when it was 13,057). In the fifties the increase was even more marked, to 17,410 in 1961, but it slowed in the sixties, to 18,905 in 1971. (Footnote 94).
Old Shoreham village, on the bank of the river and at the foot of the downs, expresses its location by the name Shoreham, meaning homestead under the steep hill or by the bank. The site may not be as old as is suggested by the claim that it was the place where Aelle and his sons landed in the 5th century to win a territory for the South Saxons; (Footnote 95) that place lies elsewhere. (Footnote 96) Although Old Shoreham was a thriving village in the late Saxon period, as its church shows, the idea that it was the principal port of the Adur estuary before the foundation of New Shoreham seems to have originated with the assumption that the place called new had necessarily succeeded to the function of the place called old, (Footnote 97) and has been repeated on the ground that so large and fine a church as Old Shoreham's was designed to serve more than an agrarian village. (Footnote 98) New Shoreham was at first distinguished as the port, (Footnote 99) the distinction between old and new being found in surviving records only from the late 12th century. (Footnote 1) Other agrarian villages, such as Sompting, had large Saxon churches. Before the Conquest the principal port on the Adur was Steyning, for which the Domesday evidence is much more compatible with such a function (Footnote 2) than for Old Shoreham. If Old Shoreham was developed as a port by its Norman lord it was very soon replaced by New Shoreham. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, it is reasonable to assume that Shoreham was an entirely rural parish and village until New Shoreham was established on a piece of land carved out of its territory. The designation of New Shoreham church as 'of the harbour' (Footnote 3) suggests strongly that there was no pre-existing harbour at Shoreham. A reference in 1755 to a place called the old harbour, with a shingle beach, in Old Shoreham (Footnote 4) may indicate only a fairly recent landing-place for small boats; its site was probably represented by the small bank of shingle marking the southern limit of Old Shoreham village, 300 yd. SSE. of the church, in 1753. (Footnote 5)
Before the late 18th century the village consisted mainly of a curved street which was stopped by arable land at its southern end and from its northeast end led eastward towards Brighton. From the street three lanes ran west into a riverside strand, the most northerly lane running under the churchyard wall towards the ferry. (Footnote 6) When Old Shoreham bridge was opened in 1782 and the line of the Brighton road was changed, the Street became a minor road crossing the main road. The building of Old Shoreham Road in the later 18th century and of its continuation along the valley towards Beeding in the early 19th moved the centre of the village westward towards the bridge. The Red Lion public house, a long and low building of the 18th century or earlier, looked across the riverside road to the bridge, the smithy stood on the western side of the road, and the village school was built between the church and the Red Lion. (Footnote 7) Alongside the road on its western side ran the branch railway from Shoreham to Horsham. The earlier shape of the village was further changed in the 1920s when the Brighton road was moved from the lane under the churchyard wall (thereafter called St. Nicholas Lane) to a new line south of the Red Lion, slightly north of the middle lane; (Footnote 8) that lane is discernible as part of a car-park, while the southern lane survives as a footpath. The Street was by 1976 blocked by bollards at Upper Shoreham Road, and is continued southwards by the suburban Connaught Avenue.
New Shoreham was established apparently in the decade 1086–96 by William de Braose or his son Philip: it was not mentioned in Domesday, (Footnote 37) and c. 1096 Philip added the church of the harbour to his father's grant of the church of Old Shoreham. (Footnote 38) William had failed in his attempt to dominate the harbour at Steyning further up the estuary, (Footnote 39) and the planting of New Shoreham seems to mark the transfer of the Braose family's commercial and military interest in a harbour to a site where its control was unchallenged.
New Shoreham, one of the successful new towns of that period established without a system of town defences, (Footnote 40) was laid out on a grid-pattern of streets. The plan of the streets before the partial destruction and decline of the town in the later Middle Ages has been the subject of speculation. As it survived in the 18th century the town comprised a main street (the modern High Street) running east and west, parallel and close to the river bank, with seven lanes leading north to a cross-lane parallel to the main street and nearly a furlong from it; north of the town five of those lanes led onwards to another cross-lane 100–150 yd. further north, beyond which they merged and branched out towards other settlements. Where Foul (later Love, afterwards Mill) Lane met Green Lane (later Victoria Road) and New Barns Lane (later Southdown Road), near the northern tip of New Shoreham parish, a stone cross stood in the early 17th century. (Footnote 41) Some 18thcentury cottages survived there in 1976. In the 18th century the town was largely confined to the area south of the first cross-lane, and that area contained many unbuilt spaces. (Footnote 42).
The traffic of the port and indications of the size of the population in the Middle Ages are discussed elsewhere; the general importance attributed to the town is indicated by the establishment there of chapels of the military orders, of a friary, and of hospitals. By c. 1170 the Templars had an oratory and burial ground in the port, and by c. 1190 the Hospitallers had a chapel in New Shoreham; both orders were alleged to have drawn parishioners and their offerings away from the parish church. (Footnote 58) A fire which damaged the town in or before 1248 (Footnote 59) seems not to have had a long-term effect. The hospital of St. James existed by 1249, and its site and buildings survived in 1574. The hospital of St. Catherine, to which bequests were made in 1366 and 1373, evidently became the hospital of Our Saviour and may have survived in 1550. (Footnote 60) The Carmelite friary was founded in 1316 and stood in the southeast quarter of the town, whence it was driven in the 15th century by the threat of erosion. (Footnote 61) The Templars' and Hospitallers' chapels may have been in the same part, (Footnote 62) where an eastward continuation of the modern High Street is likely to have contained buildings connected with the port. What remains of that street includes, at the junction with Middle Street, a building of 12th-century origin rebuilt in the 14th century, called the Marlipins and thought to have been the custom-house of the lords of New Shoreham. (Footnote 63) Although it has been identified with the prior of Lewes's 'cellar' (Footnote 64) it was in the 16th century held freely of New Shoreham manor. (Footnote 65) It was afterwards used as an inn called the Ship. (Footnote 66) In 1927 it was bought by public subscription, and in 1928 through the generosity of Sir Hildebrand Harmsworth, Bt., was opened as a local museum under trustees acting for the Sussex Archaeological Society. (Footnote 67) Some of the openings for doors and windows survive from the 12th century, other doorways and the chequer-pattern front of flints and limestone from the 14th, and the roof from the later Middle Ages
Thomas Poole was born before 1540 in Sussex. He must be a son/descendant of the William, of Poole in Whereall (Wyrral), Cheshire, who was granted in French of crest 13 April 4 Henry VIII (1513).

Thomas Poole married Joan Unknown before 1558 in Sussex. Thomas Poole was widowed before 6 August 1567 on the death of his wife Joan Unknown.
Thomas Poole married secondly Joan Unknown (Heath) on 20 October 1567 in New Shoreham, Sussex. Thomas Poole & Joan Heath, widow.
     Thomas died in 1569?. A Thomas Poole is buried 1 March 1569 at West Tarring, Sussex..

Children of Thomas Poole and Joan Unknown

Child of Thomas Poole and Joan Unknown (Heath)

Thomas Poole

(9 May 1718 - )
     Thomas Poole was christened on 9 May 1718 in Gosport, Hampshire. He either died young or does not belong to this family. He was the son of John Poole and Elizabeth Geere.

Thomas Poole

(before 1560 - )
     Thomas Poole was born before 1560 in Sussex. His parentage is only assumed. He was the son of Thomas Poole and Joan Unknown.
Thomas Poole married Eleanor Unknown (Poole) before 1582 in Sussex. The marriage was not at Goring. Thomas Poole was widowed before 16 November 1582 on the death of his wife Eleanor Unknown (Poole).
Thomas Poole married an unknown person .
     Thomas resided at Goring, Sussex, from 1583 to 1586.

Children of Thomas Poole

Thomas Poole

(20 May 1583 - )
     Thomas Poole was christened on 20 May 1583 in Goring, Sussex. He was the son of Thomas Poole.

Thomas Poole

     Thomas Poole was buried on 29 June 1643 in St Mary le Haura, New Shoreham.

Ursula Poole (Nash)

     Ursula Poole (Nash) was born in England. She was the daughter of William (Patriarch?) Poole.
     Ursula Poole (Nash) and Thomas Poole were beneficiaries in William (Patriarch?) Poole's will dated 25 July 1623 in Iden, Sussex.
     In Ludowick Poole's will dated 23 August 1652 in Woolwich, Kent, Ursula Poole (Nash) was named as heir.

William Poole

(12 May 1659 - before 6 February 1714/15)
     William Poole was born on 12 May 1659 in New Shoreham, Sussex. He was the son of Thomas Poole and Faith Marlott.
     Administration of the estate of Thomas Poole was granted to William Poole, on 12 November 1700 in Lewes Archdeaconry, Sussex, Gentleman late of New Shoreham, to his brother William Poole.
     William was registered at Cowfold, Sussex, on the 24 May 1705 electoral roll. He was of Cowfold in a Poll of Knights of the Shire taken at Lewes on 24 May 1705.
     William died before 6 February 1714/15 in Shoreham by Sea, Sussex. He was buried on 6 February 1714/15 in St Nicholas, Old Shoreham. Mr William Pool.
     The administration of his estate was granted to John Poole on 15 February 1714/15 at Lewes Archdeaconry. Commission made to adminsiter the goods and credits of William Poole late of Old Shoreham who died intestate to John Poole & Elizabeth his wife, as nearest in blood to the said deceased (Elianor Geere, the sister of the said deceased having first renounced in writing) having first been sworn well and truly to administer Bondsman of the said John Pool of Old Shoreham Gentleman ,Charles Geere of Rottingdeane Gentleman and Thomas Friend of Lewes woollen draper. £DCXL. Inventory exhibited extends to the sum of £320:00:00.

William Poole

(15 April 1685 - 18 May 1686)
     William Poole was born on 15 April 1685 in Portsmouth, Hampshire. He was the son of John Poole and Rachel Mason. William Poole was christened on 5 May 1685 in St Thomas, Portsmouth.
     William died on 18 May 1686 aged 1.

William Poole

(4 January 1709/10 - 27 May 1710)
     William Poole was born on 4 January 1709/10 in Portsmouth, Hampshire. He was the son of John Poole and Elizabeth Geere. William Poole was christened on 28 January 1709/10 in Portsmouth.
     William died on 27 May 1710 in Portsmouth, HAM. He was buried on 29 May 1710 in Portsmouth.

William (Patriarch?) Poole

( - after 25 July 1623)
     William (Patriarch?) Poole married Jane Unknown.
     William (Patriarch?) Poole made a will dated 25 July 1623 in Iden, Sussex. I William Poole senior of the parish of Iden county Sussex ... my body to be buried in the churchyard of Iden I give and bequest to son William Poole... to my son Thomas Poole ... my daughter ..., my daughter Jane, my daughter Ursula ... my beloved wife Jane executor... executrix to maintaine my other daughter Margery during her natural life .... the mark of William poole senior.
     William died after 25 July 1623. I have joined these 2 families but there are many discrepancies - the name Ursula being the key factor..
     His will was proved on 3 April 1628 in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.

Children of William (Patriarch?) Poole

William A Poole

(September 1866 - )
     William A Poole's birth was registered in the quarter ending in September 1866 in New Brighton, Cheshire. He was the son of William Alanson Makin Poole and Emily Frances Handy. William and Marion were listed as the children of Emily Frances Handy in the 1891 census in 92 Westbourne Rd, Birkenhead, Cheshire.

William Alanson Makin Poole

(before April 1839 - March 1891)
     William Alanson Makin Poole was born before April 1839 in Liverpool, Lancashire.
William Alanson Makin Poole married Emily Frances Handy, daughter of Samuel Handy and Anna Townsend, on 15 February 1865 in St John, Liscard, Wallasey, Cheshire. The Manchester courier... reported on 17 Feb 1865: Marriages - Poole. Handy. Feb 15, at St John's Liscard, Liverpool, by the Rev T Preston Ball, MA, William Alanson Makin, fourth son of Braithwaite Poole, Esq., to Emily Frances, eldest surviving daughter of Samuel Handy, Esq., New Brighton, late of New Ross, Ireland. Also reported in the Liverpool Mercury16 Feb 1865.. William was a stock broker in April 1871, in Liscard, Cheshire.
     William Alanson Makin Poole was listed as Anna Townsend's son-in-law in the 1871 census in Magazine Park, Liscard, Cheshire. Anna Handy, head, widow aged 61, no occupation, private means, born Ireland; Charles J, son unmarried, 27, cotton salesman; Henry son, unmarried 24, corresponding clerk; Emily Poole, daughter married 27, all born Ireland; William Poole, 32, son-in-law, stock broker born Liverpool, with William, aged 4, Samuel T aged and Emily M, 9? months, grandchildren all born at New Brighton, Cheshire. Also living with her were John W? Townsend her unmarried nephew aged 20 who worked in the cotton saleroom, born Ireland; 3 servants; and Blakely Tarleton son in law aged 33, cotton salesman and his wife Annie aged 25, both born in Ireland.
     William's death was registered in the quarter ending in March 1891 in Birkenhead, Cheshire.

Children of William Alanson Makin Poole and Emily Frances Handy

Amy Pope

     Amy Pope married Henry Arthur Bird, son of Alfred Paul Bird and Alethea Cole, on 11 August 1894 in Adelaide, South Australia. She was the daughter of John Pope. The marriage was at the residence of Hamlet Turner Parkside.

Children of Amy Pope and Henry Arthur Bird

Anne Pope

     Anne Pope married Robert Ryder of Wisbech, son of link to Harrowby Ryther. She was the daughter of Dudley Pope.

Child of Anne Pope and Robert Ryder of Wisbech

Elijah Pope

(circa 1750 - )
     Elijah Pope was born circa 1750 in Gt Livermere, Suffolk, England.
Elijah Pope married Susan Wilkin, daughter of Richard Wilkin and Elizabeth Tarney, on 19 June 1770 in Hessett, Suffolk.

Children of Elijah Pope and Susan Wilkin

Elijah Pope

(2 May 1773 - )
     Elijah Pope was christened on 2 May 1773 in Sudbury, Suffolk. He was the son of Elijah Pope and Susan Wilkin.

Elizabeth Pope

(13 September 1771 - )
     Elizabeth Pope was christened on 13 September 1771 in Gt Livermere, Suffolk. She was the daughter of Elijah Pope and Susan Wilkin.

Isaac Pope

     Isaac Pope was born in Ringshall, Suffolk.
Isaac Pope married Mary Squirrell, daughter of John Squirrell and Elizabeth Freeman.

Sarah Ann Poppleton

     Sarah Ann Poppleton married Samuel Wright Rich, son of George Rich and Elizabeth Wright, on 26 March 1883 in St John the Baptist, Royston, Barnsley RD, Yorkshire.

Child of Sarah Ann Poppleton and Samuel Wright Rich

Adelaide Popplewell

(June 1854 - March 1922)
     Adelaide Popplewell's birth was registered in the quarter ending in June 1854 in Thorne RD, Yorkshire. She was the daughter of George Popplewell and Sarah Ann Whiteley. Adelaide, Arthur, Louisa and Whiteley were listed as the children of George Popplewell in the 1861 census in Armthorpe, Yorkshire. Walter, Adelaide, Arthur, Louisa, Whiteley, Clara and Martha were listed as the children of George Popplewell in the 1871 census in Worsbrough, Yorkshire.
The marriage of Adelaide Popplewell and John William Ellis was registered in Barnsley RD, Yorkshire, in the June 1872 quarter.
     An unknown person married Adelaide Popplewell as his second wife, on 24 March 1892 in Barnsley, Yorkshire. As widow she married William FORD in Barnsley 24 Mar 1892.
     Adelaide's death was registered in the quarter ending in March 1922 in Barnsley, Yorkshire.